Cecil Alec Mace carried out the first empirical studies in
For example, a group of Orange County homemakers did very well at making supermarket best-buy calculations despite doing poorly on equivalent school-like paper-and-pencil mathematics problems Lave, Similarly, some Brazilian street children could perform mathematics when making sales in the street but were unable to answer similar problems presented in a school context Carraher, ; Carraher et al, How tightly learning is tied to contexts depends on how the knowledge is acquired Eich, Research has indicated that transfer across contexts is especially difficult when a subject is taught only in a single context rather than in multiple contexts Bjork and Richardson-Klavhen, One frequently used teaching technique is to get learners to elaborate on the examples used during learning in order to facilitate retrieval at a later time.
The practice, however, has the potential of actually making it more difficult to retrieve the lesson material in other contexts, because knowledge tends to be especially context-bound when learners elaborate the new material with details of the context in which the material is learned Eich, When a subject is taught in multiple contexts, however, and includes examples that demonstrate wide application of what is being taught, people are more likely to abstract the relevant features of concepts and to develop a flexible representation of knowledge Gick and Holyoak, The problem of overly contextualized knowledge has been studied in instructional programs that use case-based and problem-based learning.
In these programs, information is presented in a context of attempting to solve complex, realistic problems e. For example, fifth- and sixth-grade students may learn mathematical concepts of distance-rate-time in the context of solving a complex case involving planning for a boat trip.
The findings indicate that if students learn only in this context, they often fail to transfer flexibly to new situations Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, The issue is how to promote wide transfer of the learning.
One way to deal with lack of flexibility is to ask learners to solve a specific case and then provide them with an additional, similar case; the goal is to help them abstract general principles that lead to more flexible transfer Gick and Holyoak, ; see Box 3.
They might be asked: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: The National Academies Press. A third way is to generalize the case so that learners are asked to create a solution that applies not simply to a single problem, but to a whole class of related problems.
For example, instead of planning a single boat trip, students might run a trip planning company that has to advise people on travel times for different regions of the country. Under these conditions, transfer to novel problems is enhanced e. Problem Representations Transfer is also enhanced by instruction that helps students represent problems at higher levels of abstraction.
Helping students represent their solution strategies at a more general level can help them increase the probability of positive transfer and decrease the degree to which a previous solution strategy is used inappropriately negative transfer. Advantages of abstract problem representations have been studied in the context of algebra word problems involving mixtures.
Some students were trained with pictures of the mixtures and other students were trained with abstract tabular representations that highlighted the underlying mathematical relationships Singley and Anderson, Students who were trained on specific task components without being provided with the principles underlying the problems could do the specific tasks well, but they could not apply their learning to new problems.
By contrast, the students who received abstract training showed transfer to new problems that involved analogous mathematical relations. Research has also shown that developing a suite of representations enables learners to think flexibly about complex domains Spiro et al.
Relationships Between Learning and Transfer Conditions Transfer is always a function of relationships between what is learned and what is tested. Many theorists argue that the amount of transfer will be a function of the overlap between the original domain of learning and the novel one. Measuring overlap requires a theory of how knowledge is represented and conceptually mapped across domains.
A general wishes to capture a fortress located in the center of a country.
There are many roads radiating outward from the fortress. All have been mined so that while small groups of men can pass over the roads safely, a large force will detonate the mines.
A full-scale direct attack is therefore impossible. Students memorized the information in the passage and were then asked to try another task, which was to solve the following problem Gick and Holyoak, You are a doctor faced with a patient who has a malignant tumor in his stomach.
It is impossible to operate on the patient, but unless the tumor is destroyed the patient will die. There is a kind of ray that may be used to destroy the tumor. If the rays reach the tumor all at once and with sufficiently high intensity, the tumor will be destroyed, but surrounding tissue may be damaged as well.
At lower intensities the rays are harmless to healthy tissue, but they will not affect the tumor either. What type of procedure might be used to destroy the tumor with the rays, and at the same time avoid destroying the healthy tissue?
Few college students were able to solve this problem when left to their own devices. However, over 90 percent were able to solve the tumor problem when they were explicitly told to use information about the general and the fortress to help them.
These students perceived the analogy between dividing the troops into small units and using a number of small-dose rays that each converge on the same point—the cancerous tissue.
Each ray is too weak to harm tissue except at the point of convergence.Through an understanding of the effect of goal setting on individual performance, organizations are able to use goal setting to benefit organizational performance. and that is the sharing factor; a positive correlation exists between sharing information within the , in order for it to improve the group's performance.
Goals and traits. Learning (Mastery) Goals: Learning oriented students are interested in increasing their competence. As Kaplan and Maehr () state, it refers to "a purpose of personal development and growth that guides achievement .
Performance Goals and Outcome Goals There is a significant difference between performance goals and outcome goals. Performance based goals can be controlled by the person who sets the goals while outcome based goals are frequently controlled by others.
Understanding the Relationship Between Critical Thinking and Job Performance the researchers found a correlation of between total scores on the Watson-Glaser and course grades.
relationship between Watson-Glaser scores and performance in the assessment center exercises. Spector, Schneider, Vance, & Hezlett, found that. In terms of goals, an incremental person is usually eager to learn.
At school, he is most likely going to take difficult classes in hopes of learning new things. On the other hand, an entity person usually focuses more on performance, rather than learning since he already believes that inte.
THE MEASUREMENT OF MOTOR PERFORMANCE. The measurement of motor performance is critical to understanding motor learning & development. Chapter 3 3 PERFORMANCE OUTCOME MEASURES motor performance provides a better understanding of one’s behavior or performance.