An introduction to the issue of patriarcha

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An introduction to the issue of patriarcha

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The ancient Roman Empire having been divided into two parts, an Eastern and a Western, the Eastern remained subject to successors of Constantinewhose capital was at Byzantium or Constantinople. The term Byzantine is therefore employed to designate this Eastern survival of the ancient Roman Empire.

The subject will be here treated under the following divisions: Byzantine Civilization; The latter division of the article will be subdivided into six heads in chronological order.

Byzantine civilization At the distance of many centuries and thousands of miles, the civilization of the Byzantine Empire presents an appearance of unity. Examined at closer range, however, firstly the geographical content of the empire resolves itself into various local and national divisions, and secondly the growth of the people in civilization reveals several clearly distinguishable periods.

Taking root on Eastern soil, flanked on all sides by the most widely dissimilar peoples — Orientals, Finnic-Ugrians and Slavs — some of them dangerous neighbours just beyond the border, others settled on Byzantine territory, the empire was loosely connected on the west with the other half of the old Roman Empire.

And so the development of Byzantine civilization resulted from three influences: The first period of the empire, which embraces the dynasties of Theodosius, Leo I, Justinianand Tiberius, is politically still under Roman influence. In the second period the dynasty of Heraclius in conflict with Islamsucceeds in creating a distinctively Byzantine State.

An introduction to the issue of patriarcha

The third period, that of the Syrian Isaurian emperors and of Iconoclasmis marked by the attempt to avoid the struggle with Islam by completely orientalizing the land. The fourth period exhibits a happy equilibrium. The Armenian dynasty, which was Macedonian by origin, was able to extend its sway east and west, and there were indications that the zenith of Byzantine power was close at hand.

In the fifth period the centrifugal forces, which had long been at work, produced their inevitable effect, the aristocracy of birth, which had been forming in all parts of the empire, and gaining political influence, at last achieved its firm establishment on the throne with the dynasties of the Comneni and Angeli.

The sixth period is that of decline; the capture of Constantinople by the Crusaders had disrupted the empire into several new political units; even after the restoration, the empire of the Palaeologi is only one member of this group of states.

The expansion of the power of the Osmanli Turks prepares the annihilation of the Byzantine Empire. Geographically and ethnographically, the Roman Empire was never a unit.

CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Byzantine Empire

In the western section comprising Italy and the adjacent islands, Spainand Africa, the Latin language and Latin culture were predominant. Of these territories, only Africa, Sicilyand certain parts of Italy were ever under Byzantine control for any length of time.

To the southeast, the Coptic and Syriac and, if the name is permitted, the Palestinian nation assumed growing importance and finally, under the leadership of the Arabsbroke the bonds that held it to the empire.

In the East proper Asia Minor and Armenia lay the heart of the empire. In the southeast of Asia Minor and on the southern spurs of the Armenian mountains the population was Syrian. The Armenian settlements extended from their native mountains far into Asia Minorand even into Europe.

The coast lands of Asia Minor are thoroughly Greek. The European part of the empire was the scene of an ethnographic evolution. From ancient times the mountains of Epirus and Illyria had been inhabited by Albanians, from the beginning of the fifteenth century they spread over what is now Greece, down towards southern Italy and Sicily.References are needed for most forms of academic writing, including essays, reports and dissertations.

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A thematic bibliography of the history of Christianity. VENICE v Updated 19 June RETURN TO INDEX. TABLE OF CONTENTS. INTRODUCTION..

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Hobbes, Thomas: Moral and Political Philosophy | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy