Paul-Elder Critical Thinking Framework Critical thinking is that mode of thinking — about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them. Paul and Elder, The Paul-Elder framework has three components:
History[ edit ] The earliest documentation of critical thinking are the teachings of Socrates recorded by Plato. Socrates established the fact that one cannot depend upon those in "authority" to have sound knowledge and insight. He demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational.
He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief. He established the importance of seeking evidence, closely examining reasoning and assumptions, analyzing basic concepts, and tracing out implications not only of what is said but of what is done as well.
His method of questioning is now known as "Socratic Questioning" and is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy.
In his mode of questioning, Socrates highlighted the need for thinking for clarity and logical consistency. Socrates asked people questions to reveal their irrational thinking or lack of reliable knowledge.
Socrates demonstrated that having authority does not ensure accurate knowledge. He established the method of questioning beliefs, closely inspecting assumptions and relying on evidence and sound rationale.
Critical thinking was described by Richard W. Paul as a movement in two waves Its details vary amongst those who define it. According to Barry K. Beyercritical thinking means making clear, reasoned judgments.
Good critical thinking requires having a command of these standards. According to Paul and Elder (,), the ultimate goal is for the standards of reasoning to become infused in all thinking so as to become the guide to better and better reasoning. Lists nine strategies that help students move from being an "unreflective thinker" to a "master thinker," discussing in detail the last five strategies: reshaping character; dealing with egocentrism; redefining the way to see things; getting in touch with emotions; and analyzing group influences on life. Critical Thinking in Everyday Life: 9 Strategies. You are testing ideas in your everyday life. You are integrating them, and building on them, in the light of your actual experience. Paul, R. & Elder, L. (). Modified from the book by Paul, R. & Elder, L. (). Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your.
During the process of critical thinking, ideas should be reasoned, well thought out, and judged. National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking  defines critical thinking as the "intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.
Definitions[ edit ] Traditionally, critical thinking has been variously defined as follows: Critical thinking is inward-directed with the intent of maximizing the rationality of the thinker.
Some definitions of critical thinking exclude these subjective practices. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message The ability to reason logically is a fundamental skill of rational agents, hence the study of the form of correct argumentation is relevant to the study of critical thinking.
It followed a philosophy where the thinker was removed from the train of thought and the connections and the analysis of the connect was devoid of any bias of the thinker. Kerry Walters describes this ideology in his essay Beyond Logicism in Critical Thinking, "A logistic approach to critical thinking conveys the message to students that thinking is legitimate only when it conforms to the procedures of informal and, to a lesser extent, formal logic and that the good thinker necessarily aims for styles of examination and appraisal that are analytical, abstract, universal, and objective.
This model of thinking has become so entrenched in conventional academic wisdom that many educators accept it as canon".
Walters Re-thinking Reason,p. Walters summarizes logicism as "the unwarranted assumption that good thinking is reducible to logical thinking". Rationality and logic are still widely accepted in many circles as the primary examples of critical thinking. Deduction, abduction and induction[ edit ] Main article: Deduction is the conclusion of a consequence given premises that logically follow by modus ponens.
Induction is drawing a conclusion from a pattern that is guaranteed by the strictness of the structure to which it applies. Abduction is drawing a conclusion using a heuristic that is likely, but not inevitable given some foreknowledge.
Contrast with the deductive statement: Walters Re-thinking Reason, argues that rationality demands more than just logical or traditional methods of problem solving and analysis or what he calls the "calculus of justification" but also considers " cognitive acts such as imaginationconceptual creativity, intuition and insight" p.
These "functions" are focused on discovery, on more abstract processes instead of linear, rules-based approaches to problem-solving.
The linear and non-sequential mind must both be engaged in the rational mind. But so is the ability to be flexible and consider non-traditional alternatives and perspectives. These complementary functions are what allow for critical thinking to be a practice encompassing imagination and intuition in cooperation with traditional modes of deductive inquiry.Teaching Critical Thinking Debra Fowler Center for Teaching Excellence Adapted from Paul & Elder, Checklist for Reasoning Paul and Elder () • All reasoning problem and my life depended on the solution, I would spend the first 55 minutes determining.
Active Learning Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking. Stacy E. Walker My purpose is to provide a brief introduction to the definition and disposition to think critically along with active learning strategies to promote CT.
Paul R, Elder L. Critical Thinking: Tools for . Dr. Richard Paul is founder of the Foundation for Critical Thinking and director of research and professional development at the Center for Critical vetconnexx.com is an internationally recognized authority on critical thinking, with nine books and more than articles on the vetconnexx.coms: Why Critical Thinking in Everyday Life Matters Literally everyone can benefit from critical thinking because the need for it is all around us.
In a philosophical paper, Peter Facione makes a strong case that critical thinking skills are needed by everyone, in all societies who value safety, justice, and a host of other positive values. Review the instructional media and documents related to the Paul-Elder model of critical thinking provided below and answer the questions that follow.
Will This Thinking Be On The Test? Strategies To Foster Students' Disciplinary Thinking, by P. Payette at the University of Louisville Paul, R., & Elder, L.
Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life.), There are nine strategies to developing critical thinking “1. Use “Wasted” Time. 2. A Problem A Day. 3. .