Gasification Gasification It is the thermochemical conversion of organic matter at high temperatures with partial oxidation. Energy in organic matter produces combustible gases CO, CH4 and H2 and minor products char, water and condensable matter. The first step, called Pyrolysis, decomposes organic matter by heat to produce gaseous and volatile matter and char, which is non-volatile, containing high carbon content.
Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p. Two key indicators can help assessthe impact of biofuel developments on food security: The more income a household or individual has, the more food and of better quality can be purchased. The precise effects of food prices on household food security are more complex.
Higher food prices are expectedto make net food-buying households in both urban and rural areas worse off, while better-endowed rural households, who are net sellers of food, stand to gain from the increased incomes resulting from the higher prices.
Higher world food prices do not necessarily affect household food security: The degree of transmission is always stronger over the longer term. For example, India and the Philippines make use of government storage, procurement and distribution as well as restrictions on international trade.
Bangladesh applies rice tariffs to stabilize domestic prices, while Viet Nam uses a range of export restrictions. On the other hand, countries such as China and Thailand have allowed most of the changes in world prices to pass through to domestic markets.
Maize is a feedgrain in Asia and subject to much less price intervention. FAO b found that price transmission is generally weaker in Africa than in Asian countries.
In the longer run they may also impede or slow down an effective supply response to higher prices. Impacts on net food buyers and net food sellers Opportunities for biomass production in cambodia essay almost all urban dwellers are net food consumers, not all rural dwellers are net food producers.
Only in two instances does the share of net selling households exceed 50 percent. Distribution of poor net buyers and sellers of food staples Even in rural areas, where agriculture and staple food production is an important occupation for the majority of the poor, a vast share of the poor are net food buyers Figure 28 and thus stand to lose, or at least not gain, from an increase in the price of tradable staple foods.
The proportion of poor smallholders that are also net sellers never exceeds 37 percent and for four of the seven countries is 13 percent or less. The proportion of poor that are net buyers ranges from Poverty impacts of higher food prices For the poorest households, food typically accounts for half, and often more, of their total expenditure.
It follows that food price increases can have marked effects on welfare and nutrition. As an example, Block et al. Furthermore, purchases of more nutritious foods were reduced in order to afford the more expensive rice.
This led to a measurable decline in blood haemoglobin levels in young children and in their mothersincreasing the probability of developmental damage. These estimates do not allow for household responses in production and consumption decisions and thus they represent an upper bound of the likely impact.
However, in the very short run, the potential for adjustments in crop production is limited, and on the consumption side the very poor are likely to have only minimal substitution possibilities.
Table 13 Share of net staple food-seller households among urban, rural and total households What Figure 29 highlights is that the poorest expenditure quintiles are worst affected in both urban and rural areas — they experience either the largest decline or the smallest increase in welfare.
Even in some of the countries where rural households gain on average, for example Pakistan and Viet Nam, the poorest quintiles in the rural areas still face a negative change in welfare as a result of the staple price increase.
Unsurprisingly, all urban households are expected to lose in all countries, but to varying degrees, with the poorest experiencing the largest decline.
This strong result emerged even though female- headed households are not systematically overrepresented among the poor in all, or even most, of the countries. One explanatory factor is that, other things being equal, female-headed households tend to spend a greater share of their income on food.
Indeed, poor and landless families typically rely disproportionately on unskilled wage labour for their income World Bank, Indeed, in the long run, as wages adjust, the increase in household income dominated by unskilled wage labour becomes large enough to exceed the increase in household expenditures on rice.
However, this study used relatively old data, compiled when rice farming was a larger sector of the economy and thus had a more profound impact on labour markets. Higher food prices may also have second- round multiplier effects, as the higher incomes of farmers create demand for other goods and services, many of which will be locally produced.
However, if this additional income simply represents a transfer from the rural landless and urban poor, these new multiplier effects will be counterbalanced by negative multiplier effects generated by the reduced incomes of the poor, who will have less money to spend on non-food items as their food bills increase.
The net multiplier effects will depend on the change in income distribution and the different spending patterns of the winners and losers from the new set of relative prices.
On balance, at the global level, the immediate net effect of higher food prices on food security is likely to be negative. For example, Senauer and Sur estimated that a 20 percent increase in food prices in relative to a baseline will lead to an increase of million in the number of undernourished people in the world million of whom live in sub- Saharan Africa and million in South and East Asia.
The International Food Policy Research Institute IFPRI estimated that biofuel expansion based on actual national expansion plans would raise the prices of maize, oilseeds, cassava and wheat by 26, 18, 11 and 8 percent, respectively, leading to a decrease in calorie intake of between 2 and 5 percent and an increase in child malnutrition of 4 percent, on average Msangi, Biofuelsfood prices and food security.
Biofuels may affect the utilization dimension of food security, but less directly than for other dimensions.Definition of Biomass Bio-waste that is generated from agricultural residual and industrial activities Has high moisture content and low heating value.
Located in Southeast Asia, Cambodia covers an area of square kilometers, with a population of over 14 million (July ) of which about percent lives in the rural areas (Ministry of Rural Development , Central Intelligence Agency ). Feb 16, · Cambodia produces around million tons of rice husks a year, and about 25% of this is used as fuel biomass.
2 It is estimated that approximately 1 million tons of rice husk could produce 60MW of power. 3 Cambodia also has the potential to use 25, tons of old Renewable energy production. Biofuel; Solar power; Energy for .
The Environmental Effects of Rural Energy Use - Download as Powerpoint Presentation .ppt /.pptx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. The . Production of biofuel feedstocks may offer income-generating opportunities for farmers in developing countries.
Experience shows that cash-crop production for markets does not necessarily come at the expense of food crops and that it may contribute to improving food security. Biomass-based Bioenergy Investment for Poverty Reduction. Outline • Energy and Food Security Opportunities • Reduce emission of Green House Gas(GHG): N2O, methane, black Cambodia: Biochar Production and .