Fagan Pennsylvania State University Introduction Augustus is arguably the single most important figure in Roman history. In the course of his long and spectacular career, he put an end to the advancing decay of the Republic and established a new basis for Roman government that was to stand for three centuries. This system, termed the "Principate," was far from flawless, but it provided the Roman Empire with a series of rulers who presided over the longest period of unity, peace, and prosperity that Western Europe, the Middle East and the North African seaboard have known in their entire recorded history. Clearly a man of many facets, he underwent three major political reinventions in his lifetime and negotiated the stormy and dangerous seas of the last phase of the Roman Revolution with skill and foresight.
But where does this philosophy come from, and does it hold up under scrutiny? At root, the Jedi Way is a synthesis of three Eastern religions or philosophies, with an overlay of courtly behavior drawn from the medieval knights of Europe. There is no deity as such in Taoism, which conceptualizes ultimate reality as a primal energy.
These forces are neither good nor evil, and what is desirable is that they be in balance at all times. Qi is found in all things, but particularly living creatures.
The manipulation of qi is at the root of many traditional Chinese practices including acupuncture, feng shui and tai chi. The second major source of the Jedi Way is Buddhism, specifically Zen, a variant found largely in Japan. The ultimate goal is to reach a selfless state of dispassionate compassion for all living things.
Like the Jedi knights, Buddhist monks are ascetic and celibate. Zen monks are known, at least in the popular Perpetual peace essay, for developing a particular ability or craft to the point where it can be practiced with no conscious effort and nearly superhuman skill.
The third Perpetual peace essay source for the Jedi worldview is Zoroastrianism, an ancient Persian religion which viewed the world as an eternal battlefield between the forces of good and evil. Although Zoroastrianism has only small pockets of practitioners left in the modern world, it was a major influence on many other philosophies and religions.
Echoes of it are present in many places, including the way many modern Christians conceptualize the devil as a force opposite and nearly equal to God. Finally, the Jedi philosophy is overlaid with a code of chivalry based on that practiced by the medieval knights of Europe, who operated by a code of ethics including strict rules for combat, high standards of courtesy, warrior virtues such as honor, loyalty and bravery and a veneration of courtly love.
The remarkable synthesis Lucas achieved in placing together these disparate elements has proved compelling for more than one generation of viewers. However, as a workable philosophy it has major flaws. The first and most subtle of these is the conflict between Taoism and Buddhism.
Although often linked in real life, Taoism and Buddhism do not always line up. In addition, the Buddhist seeks to transcend the world and earthly existence, whereas the Taoist seeks to be fully integrated into the world as a part of nature and natural existence.
In the movies, this becomes an issue in the way that the Jedi Council is aloof and independent from politics, yet simultaneously also deeply involved in the galactic political landscape. The second conflict is between Taoism and Zoroastrianism.
Neither Yin nor Yang is preferable, and both are necessary, as apposed to Zoroastrianism, where the ultimate goal is the triumph of good and the eradication of evil. The third conflict is between Buddhism and Zoroastrianism. Again, the concept of a fight between good and evil is somewhat alien to Buddhism.
A fallen Buddhist would not be an equal and opposite force to a good Buddhist, but simply someone who had become too caught up in the illusions and the material temptations of the ordinary world.
A person of this sort might be cruel, venal and selfish, but would not be expected to have any particular spiritual power. This creates a paradox in the movies, in that the Jedi draw power from controlling their emotions, but the Sith draw power from their inability to control their emotions.
In addition it creates another instance of cognitive dissonance as the wise and dispassionate Jedi choose over and over again to resolve their problems through violence. The final conflict is between Buddhism and chivalry.
Buddhism preaches non-attachment, but one of the key characteristics of the medieval knights was passionate attachment. Also, in as much as chivalry stems from Christianity, it carries the idea of love as a powerful redemptive force.
This disconnect creates some of the most powerful paradoxes in the movies.
In the end, Luke is proven right when his ill-advised love for his father finally uncovers the good left in Darth Vader, and brings about the final end to the Sith. Therefore, love is ultimately shown to be even more powerful than the light side of the Force which failed to conquer its counterpart in all five chronologically previous movies.
Conversely, the second series suffers from taking its doctrine of non-attachment too seriously. The Jedi Council consequently comes across as cold and uncaring —a fact which drives Anakin into the more hot-blooded arms of the Dark Side.
In addition, this set of movies is in the strange position of positing love as the enemy. It is this too-fully-realized disdain for emotion that, more than anything else, makes the second series inferior to the first.PERPETUAL PEACE.
Whether this satirical inscription on a Dutch innkeeper's sign upon which a burial ground was painted had for its object mankind in general, or the rulers of states in particular, who are insatiable of war, or merely the philosophers who dream this sweet dream, it is not for us to decide.
To all to whom these Presents shall come, we the undersigned Delegates of the States affixed to our Names send greeting. Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts-bay Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, .
IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch is a book by Immanuel Kant. Romanticism as a trend in art and literature of England emerged in the 90th of XVIII century.
Romanticism in England took shape earlier. In this essay, Kant proposed a peace program to be implemented by governments.
The "Preliminary Articles" described these steps that should be taken immediately, or with all deliberate speed: Immanuel Kant, To perpetual peace: a philosophical sketch, Hackett Publishing,