It is seen as that aspect of Islamic teaching that deals with the purification of inner self. By focusing on the more spiritual aspects of religion, Sufis strive to obtain direct experience of God by making use of "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use. The Kubrawiya order was founded in the 13th century by Najmuddin Kubra in Bukhara in modern-day Uzbekistan.
The Muslim use of this term refers to the sayings and living habits of the prophet Muhammad. Both Sunnism and Shiaism are the end products of several centuries of competition between ideologies. Both sects used each other to further cement their own identities and doctrines.
Sunni recognition includes the aforementioned Abu Bakr as the first, Umar as the second, Uthman as the third, and Ali as the fourth. Transition of caliphate into dynastic monarchy of Banu Umayya[ edit ] The seeds of metamorphosis of caliphate into kingship were sown, as the second caliph Umar had feared, as early as the regime of the third caliph Uthman, who appointed many of his kinsmen from his clan Banu Umayyaincluding Marwan and Walid bin Uqba on important government positions, becoming the main cause of turmoil resulting in his murder and the ensuing infighting during Ali's time and rebellion by Muawiyaanother of Uthman's kinsman.
This ultimately resulted in the establishment of firm dynastic rule of Banu Umayya after Husainthe younger son of Ali from Fatimawas killed at the battle of karbala. The rise to power of Banu Umayya, the Meccan tribe of elites who had vehemently opposed Muhammad under the leadership of Abu SufyanMuawiya's father, right up to the conquest of Mecca by Muhammad, as his successors with the accession of Uthman to caliphate, replaced the egalitarian society formed as a result of Muhammad's revolution to a society stratified between haves and have-nots as a result of nepotismand in the words of El-Hibri through "the use of religious charity revenues zakat to subsidise family interests, which Uthman justified as "al-sila" pious filial support.
After he was murdered his followers immediately elected Hasan ibn Ali his elder son from Fatima to succeed him. Hasan, however, shortly afterwards signed a treaty with Muawiaya relinquishing power in favour of the latter, with a condition inter alia, that one of the two who will outlive the other will be the caliph, and that this caliph will not appoint a successor but will leave the matter of selection of the caliph to the public.
Subsequently, Hasan was poisoned to death and Muawiya enjoyed unchallenged power. Not honouring his treaty with Hasan he however nominated his son Yazid to succeed him.
Upon Muawiya's death, Yazid asked Husain the younger brother of Hasan, Ali's son and Muhammad's grandson, to give his allegiance to Yazid, which he plainly refused. His caravan was cordoned by Yazid's army at Karbala and he was killed with all his male companions — total 72 people, in a day long battle after which Yazid established himself as a sovereign, though strong public uprising erupted after his death against his dynasty to avenge the massacre of Karbala, but Banu Umayya were able to quickly suppress them all and ruled the Muslim world, till they were finally overthrown by Banu Abbas.
This period is seen formative in Sunni Islam as the founders of the four schools viz, Abu HanifaMalik bin AnasShafi'i and Ahmad bin Hambal all practised during this time, so also did Jafar al Sadiq who elaborated the doctrine of imamatethe basis for the Shi'a religious thought.
There was no clearly accepted formula for determining succession in the Abbasid caliphate. Two or three sons or other relatives of the dying caliph emerged as candidates to the throne, each supported by his own party of supporters. A trial of strength ensued and the most powerful party won and expected favours of the caliph they supported once he ascended the throne.
The caliphate of this dynasty ended with the death of the Caliph al-Ma'mun in CE, when the period of Turkish domination began. This resulted in Sunni protests in far off places including the Khilafat Movement in India, which was later on upon gaining independence from Britain divided into Sunni dominated Pakistan and secular India.
Pakistan, the most populous Sunni state at its birth, however later got partitioned into Pakistan and Bangladesh. The demise of Ottoman caliphate also resulted in the emergence of Saudi Arabiaa dynastic absolute monarchy with the support of the British and Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhabthe founder of Wahhabism.
The expediencies of cold war resulted in encouragement of Afghan refugees in Pakistan to be radicalised, trained and armed to fight the communist regime backed by USSR forces in Afghanistan giving birth to Taliban. The Taliban wrestled power from the communists in Afghanistan and formed a government under the leadership of Mohammed Omarwho was addressed as the Emir of the faithful, an honorific way of addressing the caliph.
This belief is based upon prophetic traditions such as one narrated by Abdullah, son of Masudin which Muhammad said: Furthermore, narrations that were narrated by the companions ahadith are considered by Sunnis to be a second source of knowledge of the Muslim faith.
A study conducted by the Pew Research Center in and released January  found that there are 1. Leaders are informal, and gain influence through study to become a scholar of Islamic law, called sharia.
According to the Islamic Center of ColumbiaSouth Carolinaanyone with the intelligence and the will can become an Islamic scholar. During Midday Mosque services on Fridays, the congregation will choose a well-educated person to lead the service, known as a Khateeb one who speaks. These varied traditions reflect differing viewpoints on some laws and obligations within Islamic law.
While one school may see a certain act as a religious obligation, another may see the same act as optional. These schools aren't regarded as sects; rather, they represent differing viewpoints on issues that are not considered the core of Islamic belief.
Historians have differed regarding the exact delineation of the schools based on the underlying principles they follow. Many traditional scholars saw Sunni Islam in two groups: Ahl al-Ra'i, or "people of reason," due to their emphasis on scholarly judgment and discourse; and Ahl al-Hadithor "people of traditions," due to their emphasis on restricting juristic thought to only what is found in scripture.
The schools of law all have their own particular tradition of interpreting this jurisprudence. As these schools represent clearly spelled out methodologies for interpreting Islamic law, there has been little change in the methodology with regard to each school.
While conflict between the schools was often violent in the past,  today the schools recognize one another as viable legal methods rather than sources of error or heresy in contrast to one another.Welcome to Progressive Islam!
/r/Progressive_Islam is a place for liberal, socialist, progressive, anarchist, and communist Muslims of all sects and schools of vetconnexx.com seek to foster an atmosphere of understanding, tolerance, and peace between diverse peoples and many unique forms of life.
Branches of Islam. 1. The Sunnis ("traditionalists") 85% of Muslims are Sunnis; Sunnis consider themselves the guardians of Islamic orthodoxy and tradition as established by Muhammad and the four "rightly guided caliphs" Sources of Religious and Legal authority are the Qur'an and hadith;.
Sunni Islam is the world's largest religious denomination, followed by Catholicism. Its adherents are referred to in Arabic as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah ("the people of the sunnah and the community") or ahl as-sunnah for short.
Islam is the religion of truth. It is the embodiment of the code of life, which Allah, the Creator and Lord of the Universe, has revealed for the guidance of mankind. Islam is an Arabic word which denotes submission, surrender and obedience. As a religion, Islam stands for complete submission and.
Today, Islam has over billion adherents who follow a structure known as the Five Pillars of Islam. Sources The Five Pillars of Islam are drawn from the two major sources of revelation that Muslims use, the Quran and the Hadith.
In this branch, the seeker begins by purifying the lower self of every corrupting influence that stands in the way of recognizing all of creation as the work of God, as God's active Self-disclosure or theophany.
This is the way of Imam Al-Ghazali and of the majority of the Sufi orders. Practical Mysticism in Islam and.