Top of Page Behavior and Communication Approaches According to reports by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the National Research Council, behavior and communication approaches that help children with ASD are those that provide structure, direction, and organization for the child in addition to family participation. ABA has become widely accepted among health care professionals and used in many schools and treatment clinics. ABA encourages positive behaviors and discourages negative behaviors in order to improve a variety of skills.
Substance-induced psychosis Various psychoactive substances both legal and illegal have been implicated in causing, exacerbating, or precipitating psychotic states or disorders in users, with varying levels of evidence. This may be upon intoxication, for a more prolonged period after use, or upon withdrawal.
Alcohol related psychosis may manifest itself through a kindling mechanism. The mechanism of alcohol-related psychosis is due to the long-term effects of alcohol resulting in distortions to neuronal membranes, gene expressionas well as thiamin deficiency.
It is possible in some cases that alcohol abuse via a kindling mechanism can cause the development of a chronic substance induced psychotic disorder, i. The effects of an alcohol-related psychosis include an increased risk of depression and suicide as well as causing psychosocial impairments.
Together, these findings suggest that cannabis use may hasten the onset of psychosis in those who may already be predisposed to psychosis. Methamphetamine psychosis Methamphetamine induces a psychosis in 26—46 percent of heavy users.
Some of these people develop a long-lasting psychosis that can persist for longer than six months. Those who have had a short-lived psychosis from methamphetamine can have a relapse of the methamphetamine psychosis years later after a stress event such as severe insomnia or a period of heavy alcohol abuse despite not relapsing back to methamphetamine.
Both first episode psychosis, and high risk status is associated with reductions in grey matter volume. First episode psychotic and high risk populations are associated with similar but distinct abnormalities in GMV.
Reductions in the right middle temporal gyrusright superior temporal gyrusright parahippocampusright hippocampusright middle frontal gyrusand left anterior cingulate cortex are observed in high risk populations. Reductions in first episode psychosis span a region from the right STG to the right insula, left insula, and cerebellum, and are more severe in the right ACC, right STG, insula and cerebellum.
In congruence with studies on grey matter volume, hypoactivity in the right insula, and right inferior parietal lobe is also reported.
Decreased grey matter volume and hyperactivity is reported in the ventral ACC i. As auditory hallucinations are most common in psychosis, most robust evidence exists for increased activity in the left middle temporal gyrusleft superior temporal gyrusand left inferior frontal gyrus i.
Activity in the ventral striatumhippocampusand ACC are related to the lucidity of hallucinations, and indicate that activation or involvement of emotional circuitry are key to the impact of abnormal activity in sensory cortices.
Together, these findings indicate abnormal processing of internally generated sensory experiences, coupled with abnormal emotional processing, results in hallucinations.
One proposed model involves a failure of feedforward networks from sensory cortices to the inferior frontal cortex, which normal cancel out sensory cortex activity during internally generated speech. The resulting disruption in expected and perceived speech is thought to produce lucid hallucinatory experiences.
Dysfunction in evaluations systems localized to the right lateral prefrontal cortex, regardless of delusion content, is supported by neuroimaging studies and is congruent with its role in conflict monitoring in healthy persons.
Abnormal activation and reduced volume is seen in people with delusions, as well as in disorders associated with delusions such as frontotemporal dementiapsychosis and Lewy body dementia.
Furthermore, lesions to this region are associated with "jumping to conclusions", damage to this region is associated with post-stroke delusions, and hypometabolism this region associated with caudate strokes presenting with delusions. The aberrant salience model suggests that delusions are a result of people assigning excessive importance to irrelevant stimuli.
In support of this hypothesis, regions normally associated with the salience network demonstrate reduced grey matter in people with delusions, and the neurotransmitter dopaminewhich is widely implicated in salience processing, is also widely implicated in psychotic disorders.What is drug addiction?
Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by compulsive, or uncontrollable, drug seeking and use despite harmful consequences . Request PDF on ResearchGate | Using Simulation to Improve the Medication Administration Skills of Undergraduate Nursing Students | This quasi-experimental pilot study examined simulation methods.
critical thinking skills and dosage calculations in all stages of medication administration. The use of high-fidelity simulation could increase the knowledge and competencies of future nurses.
Student nurses’ thinking during medication administration improve the quality and safety of the to possess accurate critical thinking skills. LVNs Engaging in Intravenous Therapy, Venipuncture, or PICC Lines: The basic educational curriculum for Licensed Vocational Nurses (LVNs) does not mandate teaching of principles and techniques for insertion of peripheral intravenous (IV) catheters, or the administration of fluids and medications via the IV route.
Nurses need critical thinking skills to provide competent care. For interventions such as drug administration, a system of critical thinking assists nurses to accomplish tasks safely and efficiently.