Why write alan shapiro summary of the odyssey

How else, indeed, to clap the net over the butterfly of the moment? For the moment passes, it is forgotten; the mood is gone; life itself is gone.

Why write alan shapiro summary of the odyssey

Basic Causes of the Revolution The historian must be more than a chronicler, a mere lister of events. For his real task is discovering and setting forth the causal connections between events in human history, the complex chain of human purposes, choices, and consequences over time that have shaped the fate of mankind.

Investigating the causes of such a portentous event as the American Revolution is more, then, than a mere listing of preceding occurrences; for the historian must weigh the causal significance of these factors, and select those of overriding importance. Constitutional Conflict Historians What, then, were the basic and overarching causes of the American Revolution?

The older view, dominant in the first two or three decades of the twentieth century, laid greatest emphasis on the conflict of constitutional ideas, on the fact that the American colonists saw the actions of Great Britain after as interfering with their constitutional rights as Englishmen.

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Typical of these works were Charles H. McIlwain, The American Revolution: Adams, Political Ideas of the American Revolution: While constitutional interpretations and conflicts played a role, the entire emphasis came to seem to historians — and properly so — to be stodgy and unsatisfactory; for what event as wrenching and even cataclysmic as a revolution is ever launched on the basis of mere legalisms, and legalisms that were often dubious at that?

A Study in the History of Political Ideas and at least mentioned by the other writers. But while the assertion of the natural rights of man could far better stir the passions than mere legal and constitutional differences, there was still a vital missing link: The Progressive Historians and the Economic Dimension The "Progressive" historians, dominant in the later s and the s, added another, and exciting dimension to the analysis of the causes of the American Revolution.

For they added the important economic dimension — the struggles over the British attempt to impose taxes, mercantile restrictions, and a monopoly over the importation of tea into the colonies. But the Progressive historians did more. Inspired by the overall work on American history of Charles A.

Beard, the Progressives also posed a contrast to the constitutional or philosophic American motivations asserted by the older historians: In short, the American leaders, in particular the wealthy merchants, struggled on behalf of their economic interests, against British restrictions and tax levies.

Believing in the inevitability of class conflict, and seeing only the merchants as driven by their economic interests toward rebellion, the Progressives then had to explain two things: To explain this, the Progressives fell back on the theory of "propaganda" popular in the s and s: The "propaganda," they claimed, was used to dupe the masses into going along with the revolutionary agitation.

The result was a curious "left-right" agreement between the Progressives and the minority of American historians of the "Imperial" school. The latter maintained that the American Revolution was the result of the unwarranted propaganda of sinister agitators who succeeded in duping the masses to break their beneficent ties with the British Empire.

The major works of the "Imperial" school are Lawrence H. Beer, British Colonial Policy, — The writings of the Progressive historians are legion, ranging from such popular but poorly researched books as John C.

Davidson, Propaganda and the American Revolution, —, to the thorough and scholarly work by Arthur M. A History of the American Revolution, — But ideas do count in human motivation.

why write alan shapiro summary of the odyssey

It is impossible to read the letters, or the published writings of the leaders, as well as of the American public, and doubt the passionate sincerity with which they held their revolutionary ideas.

Furthermore, the Progressives overlooked several other important points.

Contraceptive Implants

First, while the economic interpretation is often insightful in gauging the motivations for State action, particularly by small groups of pullers of the levers of State power, it is highly inadequate in explaining the motives of mass actions, especially revolutionary actions, against the State — whether by leaders or by the public.

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The Trojan Women (Ancient Greek: Τρῳάδες, Trōiades), also known by its Latin title Troades, is a tragedy by the Greek playwright Euripides. Produced in BC during the Peloponnesian War, it is often considered a commentary on the capture of the Aegean island of Melos and the subsequent slaughter and subjugation of its populace by the Athenians earlier that year (see History of Milos).

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Modern Historians Confront the American Revolution | Mises Institute